Kent State: The Rest of the Story

Students Killed at Kent State and Jackson State
New Perspectives
Poorly understood and historically distorted events at Kent State in April 1970 turned millions
against the war.
Ohio National Guardsmen killed four students and wounded nine without readily apparent reason. Kent State
became another exemplar of how the U.S. government was conducting a uniquely
illegal and immoral war in Vietnam and on the very streets of America. The
background and context of radical political activities before and after those
events may perhaps offer new perspectives.
Radical Students for a Democratic Society Were Active at Kent State
At Kent State University in Ohio[1] for two years Weatherman Terry Robbins, SDS regional traveler, had helped Rick
and Candy Erickson and Weatherman and red diaper baby Howie Emmer organize[2]
a radical and militant chapter of the SDS ranging from six to 30 members.[3]
They operated out of the “Haunted House” on Ash Street up the hill from the fictional
“Bates Motel” in Alfred Hitchcock’s film classic “Psycho.”[4]
Assaulting Cops
A year before the killings, on April 8, 1969 six SDS members (No first name) Dimarco, Colin S. Neiberger,
George Gibeaut, Howard Emmer, Edward Erickson and Jeff David Powell—had been
arrested for assaulting campus cops at Kent State.[5]
Other SDS members at Kent State were Tim Butz, Joyce Cecora, Colin Neiburger and Mark Real.
Revolutionaries
Debbie Shryock of the Kent Daily Stater, wrote, ”They were…bent on destroying the university. They
were determined to start revolution here.”[6]
Many SDS national leaders visited the Haunted House, Bill Ayers, Corky Benedict, Katie Boudin, Lisa Meisel, Jim Mellen, Carl Oglesby, Diana Oughton, and Mark Rudd.
On April 28, 1969, Bernardine Dohrn had told students there to arm for revolution. On another occasion Jerry Rubin had said, “Until you are ready to kill your parents, you’re not ready to change this country.”[7]
Other groups at Kent State were the Young Socialist Alliance, YSL, Student Mobilization and Moratorium
Committee—all vigorous opponents of ROTC on campus.
Communists
Senior Professor Sidney L. Jackson, a lifelong communist activist of the CPUSA, was the faculty advisor to Kent State Committee to End the War,[8]
Among whose members were red diaper baby Howie Emmer, Bob Erlich, Joe Walsh,
Rick Erickson and Robin Marks. YSLer Mike Alewitz was leader of the Kent State Mobilization Against the War.
Weathermen Arrive on Scene: “Join the Americong…”
In early May 1970 cars arrived from Illinois and New York, home turfs of the Weather SDS, Bill Ayers
and others. In requesting help from the Governor, Kent Mayor Leroy told a grand
jury that two cars of Weathermen had arrived.[9]
The out of town contingent emerged with walkie-talkies and armbands. The
SDS Weather controlled Revolutionary Printing Cooperative Committee produced a
leaflet distributed at Kent State showing white radicals carrying rifles
captioned, “Join the Americong…Be an Outlaw. The Time is right for fighting
in the streets.” [10]
Not Students
Some of the most prominently witnessed leaders of the riots, Jerry Rupe, Rick Felber, Doug Cormak, Peter
Bleik, Thomas Foglesong and Thomas Miller, were not students of Kent State
University.[11] Witnesses later reported overhearing talk of meetings planning riots and the
burning of the ROTC building on campus[12] including gathering rocks[13],
railroad flares, and machetes. Students warned merchants to post signs
protesting the war in Vietnam and Cambodia or face damages to their stores.[14]
City of Kent: Days of Rage Before National Guard Called Out
Indistinguishable from the Weathermen “Days of Rage” in the streets of Chicago in October 1969, for three
days May 1-3, 1970 mobs surged through the streets of Kent, Ohio and the
university campus breaking windows, setting fires, burning the ROTC building,
attacking photographers, firemen and policemen and cutting fire hoses.[15]
Ohio Governor James Rhodes compared the mobs to Nazi brown shirts, Communists, nightriders and vigilantes.
They were “well-trained, militant” revolutionaries”.[16] [17]
Twenty-three faculty members of Kent State signed a leaflet distributed by the hundreds deploring the
Governor’s deployment of the National Guard saying the burning of the ROTC
building had to be taken in the “larger context of the daily burning of buildings
and people by our government in Vietnam, Laos and now Cambodia.” This faculty
minority demanded the removal of the National Guard, the end of “martial law”
and “greater understanding of the issues …contributing to the burning of ROTC building….”[18]
Only after the trashing of the city and the burning of the ROTC building, on May 4, 1970 had the Governor
called out the Ohio National Guardsmen.
Mobs Attack National Guard
Hundreds of students and nonstudents advanced upon the Guardsmen shouting obscenities and yelling KILL,
KILL, KILL.”[19] According to various witnesses and photographs the mob bombarded the Guardsmen
with bricks, concrete, golf clubs, baseball bats, spiked golf balls, sling
shots and ball bearings, razor embedded blocks of wood and bags of excrement.
Sniper Fire Reported
Radios of the National Guard and State Police reported sniper fire. Retreating up a hill one or more shots,
not from the Guard’s M-1 rifles according to contemporary witnesses, rang out.[20]
A TV reporter, Fred DeBrine of WKYC, claimed to have seen and overheard Kent
State student and FBI informant and photographer, Terry Norman, handing a
revolver to a police officer and saying “I was afraid they were going to kill
me, so I took out my revolver, and I fired it the air and into the ground.” [21]
Gunfire Confirmed in 2010
Such gunfire prior to the shootings of the Ohio National Guard was in dispute until a digitally mastered
copy of an audiotape of that day revealed new evidence in October 2010:
Kent State student and law
enforcement photographer, Terry Norman, was surrounded by an angry mob recorded
shouting, “They got someone” followed by “Kill Him, Kill Him.” Thereafter, the
sound of a digitally identical .38 caliber revolver is heard followed by “Whack
that [expletive]”and three more .38 caliber shots.
Then a command, “prepare to fire.”[22]
A contemporary photo shows Terry Norman in the protection of Ohio National
Guardsmen.[23] A perhaps guilt-ridden Terry Norman has since told many stories, denied firing
his .38 and avoided interviews, but the forensic evidence now seems to place
him in self-defense precipitating a human tragedy.
13 Seconds of Hell
Seventy seconds later, frightened and undisciplined members of the National Guard, 29 out of 77
guardsmen, returned rifle fire 67 times for 13 seconds killing four
students—Allison Krause, Jeffrey Miller[24], Sandra Scheuer, William Schroeder– and wounding nine others.
Fateful Photo Forever Condemns U.S. Government
In a Pulitzer Prize winning John Filo photo, a tall 14-year-old runaway girl from a Florida junior high
school, Mary Ann Vecchio, was forever remembered kneeling, screaming with arms
outstretched over the prostate body of an innocent student bystander Jeffrey Miller.[25]
(There a similar photo of a woman holding the head of Benno Ohnessorg shot by a
West German policeman in a 1967 protest. The policeman, Karl-Heinz Kurras, was
a paid agent of the Stasi, the East German Secret Police. The “fascist” police
murder mobilized the German Left.[26])
The Filo photo and news coverage radicalized thousands.
Jerry Rubin who had told Kent State students,
“Until you are ready to kill your parents, you’re not ready to change this
country.”[27]
“radicalized, revolutionized and yippized”
About the bloodshed, Rubin said, “In 48 hours more young people were radicalized, revolutionized and
yippized than in any single time in American history.”[28]
According to Bob Haldeman’s diary, President Nixon upon being told of the student deaths
was “very disturbed. Afraid his (Cambodian) decision set it off, and that is
the ostensible cause of the demonstrations there.”[29]
Kent Makes Effective Soviet Propaganda
Kent State provided the stuff for Soviet agit-prop[30] such as Soviet poet
Yevgeny Yevtushenko’s Bullets don’t like people / who love flowers, a
propaganda piece, published in Pravda, the official newspaper of the
Communist Party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The poem was a
eulogy for 19-year-old protester and victim Allison Krause. The day before she
was quoted as saying “Flowers are better than bullets.” Yevtushenko’s
poem was both a condemnation of the war and a call to arms to overthrow
capitalism to “become a legion of flowers… armed with bullets.”[31]
To this day the photo of Mary Ann Vecchio hangs in Hanoi’s war museums.
Photo: Iconic Kent State photo,  War Remnants Museum wall, Roger Canfield, March
2008:.[32]
FBI Investigation
FBI Director Hoover privately reported, but did not publicly conclude that FBI investigations
showed rioting students and nonstudents at fault, as would ultimately a Special
Ohio Grand Jury and the families of the student victims.
Yet Jerris Leonard of the Justice Department, who had prosecutorial responsibility (and political
vulnerability) publicly claimed the FBI had concluded the Guard was at fault[33]
and on June 15, 1970 J. Walter Yeagley, Assistant Attorney General for Internal
Security wrote Hoover, “the evidence was insufficient to warrant presentation
…to a grand jury.” Hoover scrawled on the memo, “The usual run around by the do nothing Div.”[34]
Scranton Commission
Nixon appointed Pennsylvania Governor William Scranton to lead a Commission on Kent State, which would call
the actions of the National Guard “unnecessary, unwarranted, and inexcusable.”
Ohio Grand Jury
Thinking otherwise, Ohio Governor James Rhoades called a Special Ohio Grand Jury, which indicted 25 students[35] and no Guardsmen.[36]
U.S. District Court
On October 16, 1970.  Eight Guardsmen (James Daniel McGee, Mathew
Junior McManus, Barry William Morris, William Earl Perkins, James Edward
Pierce, Lawrence Anthony Shafer, Leon Herbert Smith, Ralph William Zoller) were
prosecuted for violating the civil rights of students, but U.S. District Court
Judge Frank J. Battisti acquitted the guardsmen. They lacked willful intent to
deprive victims of their civil rights.[37]
Prosecutions and Culprits Fade Away
Thomas S. Lough, a sociology professor and faculty advisor to SDS,[38]
was indicted for inciting a riot. Only two of the wounded students were among
the 25 indicted, Joe Lewis and Alan Canfora. Canfora was an identified Maoist
member of the Revolutionary Communist Party[39] and a member of the National Lawyers Guild.[40]
After two years of SDS mentoring only three of the indicted were SDS members in
the action-Ruth Gibson, Ken Hammond and Ron Weissenberger.
Thomas Graydon Fogleson, witnessed pulling fire hoses,[41]
and Larry A. Shub both pled guilty to first-degree riot. Jerry Rupe who was
witnessed setting fire to the ROTC building with a gasoline soaked rag, burning
an American flag, and assaulting firemen[42] was found guilty by a hung jury only for interfering with a fireman by cutting fire hoses.[43]
During trial charges were dismissed against Peter Bleik, witnessed leading the
action at the ROTC fire scene,[44] was not identified at trial.[45]
Charges against Mary Helen Nicholas were also dismissed at trial. On December
23, 1971 all charges against the remaining 20 were also dismissed.
Meanwhile, two of the indicted fled, Carol Mirman to California and Allen “Alfie” Tate, a Black
Panther, to New York and were never arrested or prosecuted –Tate for being
witnessed helping to set fire to the ROTC building. [46]
Payday for Rioters
Two indicted students, Joe Lewis and Alan Canfora, and one witnessed riot participant, Thomas Grace,
received money settlements in civil suits equal to or larger than the $675,000
settlements given to parents of the four dead students.
Every subsequent year since 1970 commemorative ceremonies have been held at Kent State as perpetual symbols
of the evil empire and its war in Vietnam. Mark Rudd, weatherman and an SDS visitor
to Kent State, in retrospect wrote, “In some measure, the militancy of the
university’s Cambodia demonstrations resulted from the confrontational politics
that Weatherman had helped to create at Kent.” The Kent State chapter of SDS  “had produced dozens of Weather cadre.”[47]
Buying Dynamite
Taking no time to mourn the dead at Kent State on May 4,
1970 Weatherman John Allen Fuerst (Aka Jeremy Pikser, Phil) and Roberta Brent
Smith, dedicated to an immediate revolution, illegally bought 30 pounds of dynamite,
under the alias William Allen Friedman and took the explosives to California.[48]
In mid 1970 a Gallup poll asked Americans to rate groups. 42% rated the SDS
highly unfavorable and the Black Panthers 75% highly unfavorable.[49]
A Gallup poll revealed that 58% of Americans blamed the protesters and only 11% the guard.[50]
Hardhats: “Kill the Commie Bastards
On May 8th in New York some two hundred, hardhatted
construction workers, following the example of their AFL-CIO leader, George
Meany who supported the war, opposed the leftists. Apparently not having read
Karl Marx’s Das Kapital, the workers chanted, “Kill the Commie
Bastards,” while defending capitalist Wall Street from a leftist assault.
The hardhats roughed up seventy students. In the weeks that followed prowar
hardhats in the thousands took to the streets in response to antiwar protests.
J. Edgar Hoover told Egil Krogh, “I’m glad (the construction guys) did what
they did…[T]hey really chased them down Broadway.”[51]
Washington Protest of Kent Killings
Assisted by Cora Rubin Weiss’s intelligence
network, organizational apparatus and public outrage over the killing of
innocents at Kent State in a few days, on May 9th up to 50,000-100,000
demonstrators converged on Washington, D.C.
Major speakers and organizers were Barbara Bick, Rennie Davis, Dave Dellinger, Richard Fernandez,
Fred Halstead, Phil Hirschkop, Abbie Hoffman, Brad Lyttle, John McAuliff,
Stuart Meacham, Sidney Peck, Jerry Rubin, Arthur Waskow, and Ron Young. The
protest concluded with demonstrators picking up caskets and marching them down
15th Street toward the White House ringed by tightly packed buses
and an invisible thousand National Guardsmen.
Police and National Guard Refuse to be Provoked
Marshals directed the caskets away from the White House, but an angry thousand rushed down H Street
breaking windows of buses until police tear gas turned them back. Some who occupied
the Peace Corps claimed, “Like the Viet Cong, we escape back into the people.”
On the whole the mass of demonstrators on the 9th was calm and peaceful. That angered Norma Becker,
Arthur Waskow and Sidney Peck who had hoped that mass civil disobedience would
provoke the government to use excessive force[52] as it had at the Democratic Convention in Chicago in 1968.
Nixon: “Bunch of Bums”
Jane Fonda called President Nixon a “warmonger” for sending U.S. troops against the
Vietnamese in their sanctuary of Cambodia. Nixon replied that Fonda and kind
was “a bunch of bums.” At a Washington rally Fonda welcomed her
“fellow bums,” clenched her fist and declared “Power to the people.”
FBI Investigation of Kent State
On May 11, 1970, J. Edgar Hoover told White House aide Egil Krogh, “The national guardsmen (at Kent
State) would have been killed if they had not fired because students were
throwing lead pipes, rocks, and bricks at Guardsmen. …We have…photos of bruises
of the Guardsmen in color, some of which are shocking.” Hoover reminded Krogh
that the burning of an ROTC building two nights before had precipitated the calling out of the National Guard.[53]
Protesters Target ROTC
Attacks, harassment and disruption of ROTC
and military recruiting on campus—e.g. Wisconsin, Northwestern, Dartmouth,
Berkeley, Princeton– would reduce ROTC enrollments by two-thirds from the mid-1960s to the 1970s.[54]
This diminished the ranks of recruitable commissioned officers and negatively
impacted the quality of junior officers serving in combat, e.g. William Calley at My Lai.
Jackson State Killings
On May 15, two more students protesting the war were shot and killed at Jackson State College in
Mississippi.  On May 18th, Hoover told Vice President Agnew, “We found a considerable amount of firearms
in the …rooms of students (at Kent State)…Some say there was sniping and some
say there was not. …The same is true at Jackson …allegations of sniping at the troops before they fired and denials.”
Agnew said the media covered police shootings, but not the looting.
Hoover said Guardsmen were “severely provoked” at Jackson and Kent State.[55]
Later media reports would say the FBI had found no justification for the Kent
State shootings. An angry Hoover told President Nixon that was the view of
Assistant Attorney General Jerris Leonard, not the FBI. The FBI did not draw
conclusions. “We must not allow the press to get by with attributing things to
the FBI which are absolutely untrue,” said Hoover.[56]
In Washington on May 10, 1970 the Weather Underground bombed the National Guard’s Washington Headquarters in
retaliation, they said, for the killings of anti-war protesters at Jackson and
Kent State Universities.  In addition, a fire truck was destroyed, rocks
were thrown, windows broken at the Department of Justice and at businesses
along Connecticut Avenue and at Dupont Circle, areas around the Washington Monument were disrupted.[57]
Shutting Down the Universities, Nationwide
The organized left joined by the outraged shut
down universities nationwide for teach-ins on the Vietnam War. The objective
was not debates of the issues. They sought to win the Vietnam “debate” by superior force.
And they did.
More than 400 universities were shut down or on strike. There
were protests on 57% of the nation’s college campuses and even junior high
schools experienced protests.[58] On the whole, the left on campuses almost
everywhere succeeded in bullying timid school administrators and faced
unorganized or intimidated opposition.
An FBI report, “Campus violence hits new high during period of May 1-15” said, “Campus
violence hits new high during period of May 1-15” and counted the number of
student demonstrations. May’s two-week total was equal to the previous eight
months—844 campus demonstrations, 3,000 arrests, 166 injuries, six deaths.
Property losses were $4.5 million ranging from vandalism, 115 arsonist attacks,
3 bombings–often targeting ROTC facilities. Of 458 injuries, two-thirds, 295 were of police officers.
Public Opposes Student Strikes
“Less than 3% of student enrollment …(had)…taken part”[59] in a near 100 percent shutdown of the nation’s
colleges and universities. Indeed, throughout the war young people under thirty
were far less likely to think the war was a mistake than those over thirty when
answering Gallup’s question, “Do you think the U.S. made a mistake sending
troops to fight in Vietnam?”[60] By June Gallup found that 82% disapproved
of  “College students going on strike…to protest the way things are run in this country.”[61]


[1] Ron Jacobs, The Way The Wind Blew: A
History Of The Weather Underground, Verso, 1997, 49-50.
[2] Mark Rudd, Underground: My Life With the SDS and the Weathermen, New
York: Harper Collins, 2009, 210; James A. Michener, Kent State: What
Happened and Why
, New York: Random House, 1971, 92; Cathy Wilkerson, Flying
Close to the Sun
, New York: Seven Stories Press, 2007, 228, 356.
[3] “Active Members in SDS,” T.F. Kelly to D.L. Schwartzmiller, Kent State
University [n.d.1969] in a special collection, “4 May 1970,” Box 107, at the
Kent State University Library at speccoll.library.kent.edu/4may70/box 107/107f9p12.gif.
[4] James A. Michener, Kent State: What Happened and Why, New York: random
House, 1971, 80.
[5] Neil Wetterman report attached to T.F. Kelly to D.L. Schwartzmiller, Kent State
University, May 1, 1969 in a special collection, “4 May 1970,” Box 107, at the
Kent State University Library at speccoll.library.kent.edu/4may70/box 107/107f9p12.gif.
[6] James A. Michener, Kent State: What Happened and Why, New York: random
House, 1971, 88-89, 98.
[7] Alan Stang, “Kent State,” American Opinion, June 1974, 2,4,10.
[8] “Ohio notables at rites for Prof. Jackson,” Daily World, May 16, 1979, 11.
[9] “Entire text of special grand jury report,” The Record (Kent-Ravenna), October 16, 1970.
[10] Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee to Investigate the
Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, The
Weather Underground
, Committee Print, January 1975, 27-29.
[11] C.D. Brennan to W.C. Sullivan, FBI Memo, June 10, 1970.
[12] FBI, FOIA, Kent State, CV 98-2140, 302 interview of [redacted] on 5/19/70 at
Canton Ohio; FBI, FOIA, Kent State, CV 98-2140, 302 interview of [redacted] at Ravenna, Ohio 5/16/70.
[13] FBI, FOIA, Kent State, CV 98-2140, 302 interview of [redacted] at Kent Ohio, May 26, 1970.
[14] “Entire text of special grand jury report,” The Record (Kent-Ravenna), October 16, 1970.
[15] Francis L. Brininger, State Arson Bureau, to Eugene Jewell, Chief August 6,
1970, in “ROTC building arson May 2, 1970: Witness statements taken August 6,
1970, Kent State University in a special collection, “4 May 1970,” Box 107, at
the Kent State University Library at speccoll.library.kent.edu/4may70/box
107/107f9p12.gif.
[16] Cathy Wilkerson, Flying Close to the Sun, New York: Seven Stories Press, 2007, 356.
[18] “Entire text of special grand jury report,” The Record (Kent-Ravenna), October 16, 1970.
[19] “Entire text of special grand jury report,” The Record (Kent-Ravenna),
October 16, 1970.
[20] FBI, FOIA, Kent State, CV 98-2140, 302 interview of [redacted], by [redacted]
JJD/jky, Cleveland, 5/15/70.
[21] Norman repeated his story off camera to DeBrine the next day; John
Mangels, “Kent State tape indicates altercation and pistol fire preceded
National Guard shootings (audio), Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 8, 2010.
[22] Terry Strubbe, tape recording from the ledge of his dorm room at Kent State,
April 4, 1970: AP, “Report: Pistol shots preceded Kent St. shootings,” Cleveland
Plain Dealer
, October 8, 2010; Robert F. Turner, “Turner: Not a massacre
but a mistake: New evidence indicates source of gunfire of shots that triggered
shootings,” Washington Times, October 12, 2010; “Kent Tribunal Hears New
Evidence of Clear Order to Fire at Kent State, Backs Rep. Kucinich in Call to
Open Inquiry: Audio Tape Shows Evidence of Pistol Firing Seconds Before
Verified Order to Shoot,” Common Dreams.Org, Press Release, October 12, 2010;
Testimony of Stuart Allen bit.ly/dakhWw;
[23] John Mangels, “Kent State tape indicates altercation and pistol fire preceded National
Guard shootings (audio), Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 8, 2010.
[24] A search of Miller’s clothing turned up a scrap paper with the number 673-1759
and words “communications center.” FBI, FOIA, Kent State, Teletype, FBI
Cleveland to Director FBI Washington, Unsubs: Firebombing of Army ROTC Bldg.,
Kent State Univ. (KSU), Kent Ohio, 5-6-70.
[25] The Filo photo of Vecchio is honored in the War Remnants Museum in Saigon,
author’s photos Viet II DSC_327-8
[26] Nicolas Kulish, “Spy Fires Shot in ’67 That Shook Germany, The New York
Times
, May 27, 2009, A4.
[27] Alan Stang, “Kent State,” American Opinion, June 1974, 2,4,10.
[28] Alan Stang, “Kent State,” American Opinion, June 1974, 2,4,10.
[29] H.R. Haldeman, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House, New
York: Berkley Books, 1994,191.
[30] Bill Rood to author, April 1, 2011.
[31] Solomon Todd, “Ten Years After: Kent State in the Rearview,” The Nation,
May 1980.
[32] Author’s photos, Viet II, 237, 238.
[33] H.R. Haldeman, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House, New
York: Berkley Books, 1994,220.
[34] FBI, FOIA, Kent State, Memo, C.D. Brennan to W. C. Sullivan, 6/10/70; FBI,
FOIA, Kent State, J. Walter Yeagley, Assistant Attorney General, Internal Security Division to
Director, FBI. June 15, 1970.
[35] The following were indicted: David O. Adams, William G. Arthrell, Peter C.
Bliek, Alan M. Canfora, Roseann Canfora, Douglas Charles Cormack, Joseph B.
Cullum, Michael Erwin, Richard G. Felber, Thomas Graydon Foglesong, John
Gerbetz, Ruth Gibson, Kenneth J. Hammond, Jeffrey D. Hartzler, Joseph J. Lewis,
Dr. Thomas S. Lough, Thomas D. Miller, Carol Lynn Mirman, Craig A. Morgan, Mary
Helen Nicholas, James M. Riggs, Jerry H. Rupe, Larry A. Shub, Allen Tate,
Ronald Weissenberger; FBI, FOIA, AIRTEL, SAC, Cleveland to Director [redacted]
et al Sabotage; Sedition; Destruction Government Property, civil Rights Act of
1968—interference with Federally Protected Facility, 10/20/70, 1-3; “Kent
25
,” The Burr, May 2000 at  http://www.burr.kent.edu/archives/may4/twentyfive/twentyfive1.html.
Only three of the indicted were SDS-Ruth Gibson, Ken Hammond and Ron
Weissenberger. Eyewitnesses identified the following
either throwing rocks, starting fires, beating up witnesses and firemen or
cutting fire hoses: Mike Brock, Peter Bliek, Tony Compton, Debbie Durham,
Richard Felber, Tom Grace, James Harrington, Jimmy Riggs, Jerry Rupe, Larry A.
Shub, Allen Tate, Donald Weisenberger. For eye witnesses see: Francis L.
Brininger, State Arson Bureau, to Eugene Jewell, Chief August 6, 1970, in “ROTC
building arson May 2, 1970: Witness statements taken August 6, 1970, Kent State
University in a special collection, “4 May 1970,” Box 107, at the Kent State
University Library at speccoll.library.kent.edu/4may70/box 107/107f9p12.gif
[36] H.R. Haldeman, The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House, New
York: Berkley Books, 1994,242.
[37] FBIB, FOIA, Kent State, FBI note, JJB, 11/8/74; FBI, FOIA, Kent State, SA
Martin V. Hale, Killing of Four Students at Kent State University, Kent, Ohio,
–May 4, 1970; Allison Krause, ET AL – Victims.

[38] Ken Hammond, Thomas Lough, Papers May 4 Collection, Box 21 http://speccoll.library.kent.edu/4may70/21.html

[39] Max Friedman to Roger Canfield, May 6, 2010.
[40] The NLG National Convention, February15-19, 1979, Information Digest, 9.
[41] FBI, FOIA, Kent State, Cleveland FD 204 June 23, 1970.
[42] FBI, FOIA, Kent State, Cleveland FD 204 June 23, 1970; FBI, FOIA, Kent State,
CV 98-2140, 302 interview of [redacted]at Kent Ohio, May 26, 1970; FBI, FOIA,
Kent State, CV 98-2140, 302 interview of [redacted] at [redacted] Ohio on June 18, 1970.
[43] FBI, FOIA, Kent State, Teletype, Cleveland to Director, 11-30-71.
[44] FBI, FOIA, Kent State, Cleveland FD 204 June 23, 1970.
[45] FBI, FOIA, Kent State, Teletype, Cleveland to Director, 11-30-71.
[46] FBI, FOIA, Kent State, LHM Cleveland [redacted] et al, February 8, 1972.
[47] Mark Rudd, Underground: My Life With the SDS and the Weathermen, New
York: Harper Collins, 2009, 210.
[48] FBI, FOIA, Weather Underground. The primary source is Acting SAC Chicago to Director, memo,
“Foreign Influence-Weather Underground Organization,” August 20, 1976, 199.
[49] Adam Garfinkle, Telltale Hearts: The Origins and the Impact of the Vietnam
Antiwar Movement
, NY: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1997, 8n44, 306.
[50] Robert F. Turner, “Turner: Not a massacre but a mistake: New evidence indicates
source of gunfire of shots that triggered shootings,” Washington Times, October 12, 2010.
[51] Hoover to Tolson, memo, 10:27 AM, May 11, 1970 at FBI FOIA website under Tolson. DISCLOSURE-The author
was a leader, chairman of Campus Mobilization for the Committee for Academic Freedom,
which successfully fought to keep the Claremont Graduate School open during
debates about US Cambodian operations. Other activists of the committee were
Gary Gammon, Sue Leeson, Jo Ellen Schroeder, Richard Reeb, Steve Schlesinger.
See: Leeson, Canfield and Schroeder,  “A Plea For Academic Freedom”, spring 1970. The author subsequently gave speeches
supporting Governor Ronald Reagan’s policies at the University of California.
Some members of Claremont doctoral examination committee were unhappy—delaying
completion of the author’s PhD for several years.  Perpetrators of bombings injuring a
professor’s secretary and burning down a campus landmark, Story House, were never prosecuted in Claremont.
[52] Stewart Meacham, “May Ninth,” Win Magazine, July 1970; Wells, the War Within…, 437-445.
[53] Hoover to Tolson etc, memo, May 11, 1970 found at FBI FOIA website under Tolson.
[54] Rothrock Divided… 242-3.
[55] Hoover to Tolson, memo, 9:49 AM, May 18, 1970 at FBI FOIA website under Tolson.
[56] Hoover to Tolson, memo, July 24, 1970 at FBI FOIA website under Tolson; Hoover to Tolson, memo, 8:47 AM July
24, 1970 at FBI FOIA website under Tolson.
[57] Hoover to Tolson, memo, May 14, 1970 at FBI FOIA website under Tolson.
[58] Roger B. Canfield, “Democratic Legitimacy and American Political Violence, 1964-1970,” doctoral
dissertation, Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, California 1972, 3.
[59] FBI, FOIA, “Campus violence hits new high during period of May 1-15,”file number 65-73268-127, May 21,
1970,at seanet.com/…
[60] “Support for the Vietnam War,” 21 November 2002.
[61] Joseph A. Fry, “Unpopular Messenger; Student Opposition to the Vietnam War,”
cited in David L. Anderson, John Ernst (eds.) The War Never Ends: New
Perspectives on Vietnam War
, Lexington: University of Kentucky, 2007, 237.

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